USES & Safety

Follows are chemicals used in the manufacture of perfumes and fragrances that have information available online. For more information click on the name of the chemical and it will take you to a link with more information.

 


National Toxicology Program (NTP) Reports:

 

*USES:
This compound is used as a fixative for perfumes, a bactericide (in
conjunction with quaternary ammonium compounds), a insect repellent, a topical
antiseptic, a solvent for cellulose acetate, dyes, inks and resins, in organic
synthesis of plasticizers, in germicides, in pharmaceuticals, in cosmetics
and in preservatives.

*ACUTE/CHRONIC HAZARDS:
This compound is an irritant of the skin, eyes, mucous membranes and
respiratory tract [107]. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke
and fumes [042].

 

*USES:
Propionates, some of which are used as mold inhibitors in bread and fungicides
in general; herbicides; preservative for grains and wood chips; emulsifying
agents; solutions for electroplating nickel; perfume esters; artificial fruit
flavors; pharmaceuticals; cellulose propionate plastics.

*ACUTE/CHRONIC HAZARDS:
This compound is a strong irritant. It is harmful if swallowed, inhaled
or absorbed through the skin. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic
fumes.

 

*USES: Perfume for ointments; manufacture of synthetic perfumes; flavorings.

*ACUTE/CHRONIC HAZARDS:
This compound may cause irritation on contact.

 

*USES:
Manufacturing heliotropin; to modify oriental perfumes; to strengthen soap perfumes; in small quantities together with methyl salicylate in root beer and sarsaparilla flavors.

*ACUTE/CHRONIC HAZARDS:
Not available

*OTHER:
Since this chemical is a known or suspected carcinogen you should contact
a physician for advice regarding the possible long term health effects and
potential recommendation for medical monitoring. Recommendations from the
physician will depend upon the specific compound, its chemical, physical and
toxicity properties, the exposure level, length of exposure, and the route
of exposure.

 

*USES:
Used in flavors and perfumes

*ACUTE/CHRONIC HAZARDS:
Exposure to this chemical may cause irritation of the skin, eyes, upper
respiratory tract and mucous membranes.

 

*USES:
This type of compound is used in the manufacture of lacquers, dyes, esters
for perfumes and succinates and in photography.

*ACUTE/CHRONIC HAZARDS:
This compound may be harmful by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption
[269]. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of carbon monoxide
and carbon dioxide [058,269].

USES:
Solvent for cellulose esters and ethers; resins, lacquers, printing inks,
perfume fixative, nondiscoloring plasticizer for ethyl benzyl cellulose.

*ACUTE/CHRONIC HAZARDS:
This compound is a skin and eye irritant.

 

*USES:
In the synthesis of Vitamin A, ionone and methylionone; as a flavor adjuvant;
in perfumes and cologne odors.

*ACUTE/CHRONIC HAZARDS:
This compound is a local irritant. When heated to decomposition it emits
acrid smoke and fumes.

*USES:
Food industry, lacquers, photography, manufacture of dyes; in ester form for
perfumes and in organic synthesis.

*ACUTE/CHRONIC HAZARDS:
This compound causes skin, eye, mucous membrane and respiratory tract
irritation. It emits acrid smoke and fumes when heated to decomposition.

*USES:
Manuf dyes, medicinals, varnishes, perfumes, shoe blacks. Vulcanizing rubber; as solvent.

*COMMENTS:
Severe Poison. Cancer Suspect Agent.
Keep well closed and protect from light.

*USES:
Intermediate in perfume manufacturing; flavors, ester-type lubricants;
plasticizers, pharmaceuticals, vinyl stabilizers.

*ACUTE/CHRONIC HAZARDS:
This compound is corrosive and it is a strong irritant to the skin, eyes and
mucous membranes. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes.

*USES:
Alcohol denaturant; solvent for pharmaceuticals and perfumes; in paint
removers; in manufacture of flotation agents; octane booster in gasoline.

*ACUTE/CHRONIC HAZARDS:
This compound is highly toxic by inhalation. It is irritating to the skin,
eyes and mucous membranes. It can be narcotic in high concentrations.

*USES:
Manufacture of benzyl compounds, perfumes, pharmaceutical products, dyes,
synthetic tannins, artificial resins, photography, gasoline gum inhibitors
and formerly used as irritant gas in chemical warfare.

*ACUTE/CHRONIC HAZARDS:
This chemical is corrosive and extremely irritating and may cause burns on
contact with the skin, eyes and mucous membranes. It is also a lacrimator.
It is an experimental carcinogen. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic
fumes.

 

*USES:
This compound is used as a reducing agent in the manufacture of chemicals,
intermediates, dyes, polymers, phosphors, lakes and textiles. It is used in
tin galvanizing, as a reagent in analytical chemistry and in pharmaceuticals.
It is used for silvering mirrors, revivification of yeast and as an anti-
sludging agent for lubricating oils. It is a food preservative, stabilizer for
perfume in soaps, catalyst, soldering flux, sensitizing agent for glass, paper
and plastics.

*ACUTE/CHRONIC HAZARDS:
This compound may cause severe irritation of the skin, eyes, nose, throat,
and upper respiratory tract [058]. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic
fumes of hydrogen chloride [043,058].

 

*USES:
This compound is used as a synthetic flavoring substance and adjuvant.
It is used in the synthesis of butyrate ester perfume and flavor ingredients,
in pharmaceuticals, as a deliming agent, in disinfectants, in emulsifying
agents, in sweetening gasolines, in artificial flavoring ingredients for
certain liquers, soda-water, syrups and candies. It is also used for var-
nishes and as a decalcifier of hides.

*ACUTE/CHRONIC HAZARDS:
This compound is as severe irritant of the skin, eyes and respiratory
tract [043,062]. It is corrosive and extremely destructive to tissue of
the mucous membranes and upper respiratory tract, eyes and skin [269].
This compound is readily absorbed through the skin [371]. When heated to
decomposition it emits acrid smoke, irritating fumes and toxic fumes of
carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide [043,058,269].

*USES:
Decalcifier; wool dye reducer; depilatory for hides and tanning; rubber
regeneration; electroplating; silage and grain preservation; reactive
alkylating agent for alcohols; carboxylating agent for tertiary compounds;
dyeing and finishing of textiles; manufacture of fumigants; insecticides;
refrigerants; solvents of perfume; lacquers; acetic acid; airplane dope;
allyl alcohol; cellulose formate; phenolic resins and oxalate; brewing
(antiseptic); ore floatation; vinyl resin plasticizers; counterirritant;
astringent; laundry and paper industries.

*ACUTE/CHRONIC HAZARDS:
This compound causes severe burns [025]. It is corrosive to skin and tissues
[062,099]. It can also cause lacrimation [346].

*USES:
This compound is used as a fumigant and larvicide for tobacco, dried
fruits and cereal. It is a fumigant for nuts and infected clothing. It is
also a general industrial solvent for greases, fatty acids, cellulose acetate,
collodion and celluloid. It is used in organic synthesis for the production
of sulfa drugs, perfumes, dyes, military poison gases and embalming fluid.

*ACUTE/CHRONIC HAZARDS:
This compound is harmful by ingestion, inhalation and skin absorption
[269]. It has been reported to have been absorbed through human skin resulting
in death [058]. It may cause irritation [269]. The vapor is heavier than air
and can travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back
[058]. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke, irritating fumes
and toxic fumes of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and formic acid [043,058,
102,269].

 

*USES:
Organic synthesis, especially for polypropylene glycol and polyester
resins; antifreeze solutions; solvent for fats, oils, waxes, resins,
flavoring extracts, perfumes, colors, soft-drink syrups, and antioxi-
dants; cellophane; hygroscopic agent; coolant in refrigeration systems;
plasticizers, hydraulic fluids; bactericide; textile conditioners; in
foods as a solvent, wetting agent and humectant; emulsifier; feed addi-
tive; anticaking agent; preservative (retards mold and fungi); cleansing
creams; suntan lotions; pharmaceuticals; brake fluids; deicing fluids
for airport runways; substitute for ethylene glycol and glycerol; fermen-
tation inhibitor; as a mist to disinfect air; heat exchangers; as humec-
tant in textiles, tobacco, and pet foods; and in veterinary medicine as
a glucogenic (orally) in ruminants.

*ACUTE/CHRONIC HAZARDS:
This compound may be harmful by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption
[269]. It may cause irritation of the skin and eyes [042,058,269]. When
heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of carbon monoxide and carbon
dioxide [058,269]. It is a lacrimator [099,430].

*USES:
This compound is used as an industrial solvent for gums, lacquers, paint
removers, paint thinners, vinyl resin coatings, perfumes, nitrocellulose,
acetylcellulose and many resins and oils, as an intermediate in the manufactur-
ing of pharmaceuticals and artificial leather and in synthetic flavoring.

*ACUTE/CHRONIC HAZARDS:
This compound is harmful by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption. It
is an irritant of the eyes, skin, mucous membranes and respiratory tract [269].
It is also an irritant of the nose and throat [058,099,346,371]. It is
narcotic in high concentrations [026,031,421]. When heated to decomposition it
emits toxic fumes of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide [058,269].

*USES:
This compound is used as a solvent for waxes, resins, fats, phenol,
camphor, acetyl cellulose, organic materials and heat-sensitive substances
such as caffeine. It is used in rubber manufacture, as a refrigerant, as
an additive to dye and lacquer solutions, in retarding fermentation, in
organic synthesis, in medicines, in dye extraction, in chlorination reactions
and in the manufacture of artificial pearls. It is a constituent of perfumes
and thermoplastics.

*ACUTE/CHRONIC HAZARDS:
This compound is mildly toxic by ingestion and inhalation. In high
concentrations, it is irritating and narcotic [043]. Flashback along the
vapor trail may occur [053,371]. When heated to decomposition it emits
toxic fumes of hydrogen chloride gas, phosgene and carbon monoxide [102,
371].

*USES:
This compound is used in organic synthesis to produce dye intermediates.
It is also used as an intermediate to produce a variety of derivatives such
as benzoyl peroxide, as a herbicide, as a perfume fixative, as a polymeriza-
tion catalyst, as a benzolating agent, in the synthesis of aliphatic acid
chlorides, in organic analysis for making benzoyl derivatives for identifi-
cation purposes and for acylation (i.e., the introduction of the benzoyl
group into alcohols, phenols and amines (Schotten-Baumann reaction)).

*ACUTE/CHRONIC HAZARDS:
This compound is harmful if swallowed or inhaled [058]. It is a
corrosive [058,269,275,451]. It is a powerful irritant of the skin, eyes,
mucous membranes and respiratory tract [031,036,346,451]. It is also a
lacrimator [031,036,051,275]. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic
and corrosive fumes of hydrogen chloride gas, phosgene, carbon monoxide
and carbon dioxide [043,058,269,451].

*USES:
This compound is used in artificial fruit essences and as a solvent
for varnishes, aeroplane dopes, coatings, plastics, lacquers, nitrocellulose,
smokeless powders, organic synthesis and pharmaceuticals. It is used as an
insect fumigant and in the manufacture of artificial leather, photographic
film and plates, artificial silks, perfumes and cleaning textiles. It is
also a synthetic flavoring substance and adjuvant.

*ACUTE/CHRONIC HAZARDS:
This chemical is toxic by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption
[062,071,269]. It is an irritant of the skin, eyes, mucous membranes and
respiratory tract. The vapor is heavier than air and can travel a considerable
distance to a source of ignition and flash back [058]. When heated to decom-
position it emits acrid smoke, irritating fumes and toxic fumes of carbon
monoxide and carbon dioxide [043,058,269].

*USES:
This compound is used as a solvent for low-viscosity cellulose acetate,
natural resins, some synthetic resins and some alcohol-soluble dyes, in dyeing
leather, in sealing moisture-proof cellophane, in nail polishes, quick-drying
varnishes and enamels, in wood stains, as a perfume fixative and as a jet fuel
deicing additive.

*ACUTE/CHRONIC HAZARDS:
This compound may be an irritant of the skin and eyes [036,058]. It is
readily absorbed through the skin [051,058,269]. When heated to decomposition
it emits toxic fumes of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide [058,269].

*USES:
This compound is used as a photographic developer for color movie
film and in perfumes, flavor industries, pharmaceuticals as a bacteriostatic,
cosmetics, ointments, emulsions, textiles, sheet plastics and inks. It is
a solvent for dyestuffs, cellulose esters, cellulose acetate, casein, gelatin,
waxes and shellac. It is used as an intermediate for benzyl esters and ethers,
as a surfactant, an insect repellent, local anesthetic, preservative in radio-
pharmaceuticals and preservative in sterile solutions for intramuscular or
intravenous use. It is used in heat-sealing polyethylene films, dyeing nylon
filament and in microscopy as an embedding material. In veterinary medicine,
it has been used for relief from pruritus. It once was used as an antiseptic.

*ACUTE/CHRONIC HAZARDS:
This compound may be harmful by ingestion, inhalation or skin absorption
[269]. After prolonged contact, it may be absorbed through the skin [058]. It
may be corrosive [071,151]. It is also an irritant of the skin, eyes and upper
respiratory tract [051,058,269,371]. It may cause irritation to the mucous
membranes [051,071,269]. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of
carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide [058,269].

 

*USES:
This compound is used in disinfectants, in resins, as a raw material
for photographic developers, in ore flotation, in fumigation compounds, in
explosives, in phenol, as an insecticide, as a wood preservative, in degreasing
compounds, in paintbrush cleaners and as an additive to lubricating oils. It
is also used as an intermediate in the manufacture of chemicals, dyes, plastics
and antioxidants. It is used in the manufacture of antiseptics, phosphate
esters, herbicides and perfumes, as a solvent, as an engine and metal cleaner
and in the textile industry.

*ACUTE/CHRONIC HAZARDS:
This compound may be fatal if ingested or absorbed through the skin. It
causes burns and is readily absorbed through the skin [269]. It is corrosive
[036,058,295,346]. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of carbon
monoxide and formaldehyde [102].

N-BUTYLACETATE - CAS# 123-86-4

*USES:
Industrial solvent; component of apple aroma; manufacture of lacquer;
artificial perfumes; flavoring extracts; leather, photographic films;
plastics, safety glass, mild defatting agent; solvent for natural gums
and a dehydrating agent.

*ACUTE/CHRONIC HAZARDS:
This compound emits toxic fumes when heated to decomposition. It is
irritating to the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. This material is
narcotic in high concentrations.


REASONABLY ANTICIPATED TO BE CARCINOGEN:

 

There is sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of dimethyl sulfate in experimental animals (IARC V.4, 1974; IARC S.4, 1982; IARC S.7, 1987). When administered by inhalation, dimethyl sulfate induced squamous cell carcinomas of the nasal cavity in rats. When administered by subcutaneous injection, dimethyl sulfate induced local sarcomas in rats. When administered by intravenous injection to pregnant rats, dimethyl sulfate induced tumors of the nervous system in their offspring.

USE

Dimethyl sulfate is an industrial chemical that is used mainly as an alkylating agent to convert compounds such as phenols, amines, and thiols to the corresponding methyl derivatives (IARC V.4,1974). It is used in the manufacture of methyl esters, ethers, and amines in dyes, drugs, perfumes, and phenol derivatives and other organic chemicals. It is also used as a solvent in the separation of mineral oils. It is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of many pharmaceuticals and pesticides (Sittig, 1985). It also is a component of polyurethane-based adhesives.

 

There is sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of safrole in experimental animals (IARC V.10, 1976). When given by gavage followed by dietary administration, safrole increased the incidences of liver cell tumors in mice of both sexes. When administered in the diet, safrole increased the incidences of liver hepatocellular carcinomas and cholangiocarcinomas in rats of both sexes and hepatocellular carcinomas in male mice. When administered to infant mice by subcutaneous injection, safrole induced lung adenomas and adenocarcinomas in mice of both sexes and hepatomas in male mice.

USE

Safrole, a naturally occurring substance, has been used as a flavoring agent in drugs, beverages, and foods and in the manufacture of heliotropin (IARC V.10, 1976). In 1983, the FDA reported that safrole or sassafras, the extract or the oil, was reported to be an ingredient in 113 over-the-counter drug formulations, generally for topical application but occasionally for oral administration. Safrole reportedly is also used in soap and perfumes and as a flavoring agent in drugs (IARC V.10, 1976). Formerly, it was an ingredient in pesticides.

 


There is sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of 3- chloro-2-methylpropene in experimental animals (NTP 300, 1986). When administered by gavage, the compound caused increased incidences of squamous cell papillomas of the forestomach in rats and mice of both sexes. Squamous cell carcinomas of the forestomach were increased in male rats and in mice of both sexes.

USE

3-Chloro-2-methylpropene is used primarily as a chemical intermediate in the production of carbofuran (90%-95% of the 3- chloro-2-methylpropene produced), a carbamate insecticide used mostly on corn (USE

PA, 1984, 1985). It is also used in the production of herbicides (5%), as a textile additive (1.8%), and as a perfume additive (0.6%) (USE

PA, 1985). 3-Chloro-2- methylpropene is also used as a pharmaceutical intermediate; as a fumigant for grains, tobacco, and soil; and as an intermediate in the production of plastics, pharmaceuticals, and other chemicals (Sax, 1987; Merck, 1983).

 

There is sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of acetaldehyde in experimental animals (IARC V.36, 1985; IARC S.7, 1987). When administered by inhalation, acetaldehyde increased the incidence of squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas in the nasal mucosa in rats of both sexes and laryngeal carcinomas in hamsters of both sexes. In another inhalation study using a lower exposure level and in an intratracheal instillation study, no increased incidence of tumors in hamsters was observed. When administered by inhalation, acetaldehyde enhanced the incidence of respiratory tract tumors induced by intratracheal instillation of benzo[a]pyrene in hamsters of both sexes.

USE

Acetaldehyde is used primarily as a chemical intermediate, principally for the production of acetic acid and pyridine and pyridine bases, peracetic acid, pentaerythritol, butylene glycol, and chloral. It is used in the production of esters, particularly ethyl acetate and isobutyl acetate (IARC V.36, 1985; Chem. Prod. Synopsis, 1985). It is also used in the synthesis of crotonaldehyde as well as flavor and fragrance acetals, acetaldehyde 1,1-dimethylhydrazone, acetaldehyde cyanohydrin, acetaldehyde oxime, and various acetic esters, paraldehyde, metaldehyde (a molluscicide widely used to kill slugs and snails), polymers, and various halogenated derivatives (IARC V.36, 1985).
Acetaldehyde is used in denatured alcohol. In the past it was a chemical intermediate for
2-ethyl-1-butanol, glyoxal, acrolein, and acetaldehyde-aniline condensate (HSDB, 1989).
Acetaldehyde has been used in the manufacture of aniline dyes and synthetic rubber, to silver mirrors, and to harden gelatin fibers (Merck, 1989). It has been used in the production of polyvinyl acetal resins, in fuel compositions, and to inhibit mold growth on leather (IARC V.36, 1985). Acetaldehyde is also used in the manufacture of disinfectants, drugs, perfumes, explosives, lacquers and varnishes, photographic chemicals, phenolic and urea resins, rubber accelerators and antioxidants, and room air deodorizers; acetaldehyde is a pesticide intermediate (Sittig, 1985; Gosselin, 1984).


 

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