Force Interact Sec.210 Rev. August 20, 2007
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One major challenge for physical science is to artificially modify remote force interactions via shielding or focusing of radiation flow, and thus modify the forces of gravity and inertia upon an object. This goal is currently called field propulsion by the advocates of this effort. This paper suggests that solutions to this field propulsion quest are possible,... utilizing presently known technology. The goal is to encourage research into the cause of the known system of forces and view the known empirical data from all possible rational viewpoints. It is expected that the time to obtain controlled gravitational interaction will be shortened by bringing these subjects to the public's attention.
Force imparted to objects by impinging prime radiation is due to the local interference interaction arising from the unbalanced flow. Remote forces do not exist, all force in this model results from local action.
This phenomenon of radiation and shadowing as a cause of force is seen to operate in these known sub spectra systems of force and energy:
An overview of this model's hierarchy of force and energy radiation spectra as viewed from the nucleus are:
Prime Spectrum (Pf)
Electrostatic Spectrum (Pe)
- Constituent spectra of electrons and positrons.
- Binding force field spectra for molecular cohesion, E.
- E force field spectra for force between charges.
- Magnetic field B is a solenoidal feature of the Electrostatic spectrum Pe.
- Magnetic field B, which is curl of E, is localized matter and potential energy.
Electromagnetic Spectrum, EM
- Visual light, radio, x-rays, gamma rays and energy spectra.
- Latent heat of physical phase changes and ambient heat.
- Combined E and B force field spectra for radiant energy.
The phenomena, of the Strong Force, Inertia, Gravity, and matter's Constituent radiation appear to share common or overlapping spectra. ***
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Force System Types
In this paper all remote forces are modeled through matters interaction with an unbalanced flow field of radiation. In order to obtain an unbalanced flow there are necessary conditions:
There are two known types of force systems for obtaining an unbalanced flow. The first is characterized by the Isotropic Source. The second is characterized by Point Sources. ***
In free universal space, with no objects nearby, the prime background radiation (Pf) is an isotropic source with no individual point sources . The isotropic Universe itself, is the only source for the Prime background frequencies (Pf). A single body object in free space will experience no unbalanced remote force from this isotropic radiation. The object is a standing wave deformation in its certain convergent harmonic sub spectrum of the prime radiation, and therefore is interacting; shadowing, (sinking and sourcing), its signature sub spectrum as a balanced system. The object has it's own surrounding isotropic shadow and yet the prime radiation remains isotropic as viewed from the single object. Since matter is an attribute of radiation it does not store energy independently of radiant space. Converging radiation diverges as a new spectra, arising from the frequency mixing process within the object.
Examples of spectra diverging from matter are:
In free space, regardless of how great the isotropic prime radiation's intensity is,... there will be no unbalanced force acting on the object, if there is no second body to provide a shadow to unbalance the isotropic flow. The high intensity isotropic radiation is unavailable potential energy. Only when the prime radiation flow is unbalanced in relation to an object, does the scalar field of radiation become a vector force field,... and a form of available potential energy. For a deep sea fish the high intensity isotropic water pressure is also un-available potential energy.
All natural "remote" force "fields" are due to a local unbalanced flow of radiation. Gravity, Inertia and matter's Coherence are the major examples of natural force systems that utilize the Isotropic Source system. The path to achieving artificial interaction with the force of gravity is greatly simplified with a system where the force is due to a local action.
If it were possible to artificially modify the internal shadowing characteristics of an object in a manner to cause it to present an unbalanced interaction to the isotropic inertial sub spectrum, the object would achieve field propulsion,... i.e. without propellant,... and without the necessity of having a second object (planet) to provide an external unbalanced flow through shadowing (gravity).
A radiation / shadowing model deletes the need for the causeless concept that "gravity is an inherent "remote" force of matter and/or warped space" and removes the heretofore unapproachable task of constructing a system to interact with an unreachable remote space bending object that exhibits an imponderable inherent attractive force that exists without a cause. A radiation and shadowing model of force deletes the need for the hypothetical concepts of attractive force, lines of force and tension in all force systems.
An Isotropic Source System The absolute maximum intensity of our gravitational force field is revealed when all of the gravitational spectrum from one direction is shielded. The DENSARE graph demonstrates this maximum pressure for the large black shadow planets. It is not known if a similar maximum intensity can be found for the electrostatic force system. If a satellite in orbit outside of the Earth and Moon system were able to make directional electrometer measurements, it should find that the Earth and / or Moon shield the isotropic electrostatic spectra Pe, in a manner similar to the shielding of the gravitational radiation system and the starlight radiation system. In such an electrometer measurement scenario this model predicts that planets and moons would appear as a positive charge due to shadowing and sinking of the Universe's isotropic electrostatic Pe spectrum. Therefore if the planets and moons shadow the electrostatic force spectrum, this model predicts that the electrostatic force system is a significant contributor to the algebraic summation of forces which we call gravity.
The Point Source Force System exists when some types of matter exhibit a divergent flow of certain sub spectra of radiation and appear as an above ambient source. An example of this point source system is the electron. All matter results as a confluence of convergent flow, the mixing process and divergent flow,... however, electric charges are a form of matter which exhibit mutual repulsion forces caused by their divergent flow. Visualizing the dual force (attraction and repulsion) features of the following electrostatic and magnetic systems, may be aided by first reviewing the dual circular polarization features of all radiation. Additional description of this model's magnetic field system with opposing circular polarization is available at the section "Magnetism as Radiant Whirlpools" ***
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A Point Source System The E field force system, also known as the coulomb force, is seen to operate as a point source system. The Pe spectrum is an isotropic non EM sub spectrum of the prime background radiation and exists at a given ambient spectral density throughout all of space. It is recognized that no static force will be associated with the free space Pe spectrum, because the spectrum is isotropic when no sinks or sources (objects) are near. The E vector force field only exists in areas of unbalanced Pe (read as P sub e) spectral flow. In the same manner the G vector force field (gravity) only exists in areas of unbalanced Pg spectral flow. Voltage is the value of the potential energy available to an electron between two points in an unbalanced Pe flow field ( E force field ). The Electron Volt is the term for the kinetic energy obtained by an electron when it is allowed to fall through an E vector force field with a total potential difference of one volt.
In this model it is important to emphasize the difference between the isotropic radiation flow (scalar field, no force ), and the unbalanced radiation flow (gradient field, force field and potential energy). The prior sections of this paper related to this section on Electrostatics are;... Heat Flow Analogy and The Electron.
The free space electron sinks its signature spectrum from the Prime background radiation Pf and is thus able to function as an above ambient point source of E spectrum radiation; (not "EM" radiation). Since its divergent static E intensity is above the ambient isotropic Prime Electrostatic (Pe) field, this type of unbalance gives it the ability to repel other electrons. Fourier transforms and/or the algebra of super-positional signal mixing indicate that a point (wave structure, matter) that is a source in one spectrum must be an above ambient sink in some other harmonic wavelengths.
Neutral matter contains a population of electrons, yet it does not radiate an E field above the ambient Pe field of space. Uncharged matter is at the same level of Pe radiation density as ambient space. Only free electrons or negatively charged matter exhibit as a source intensity above the ambient Pe field radiation. This steady E vector radiation flow is a field of force but it does not propagate energy in the manner that appears to occur with EM radiation. The fact that EM radiation is able to cause the manifestation of energy at remote locations,... and the Prime radiation spectra do not,... is one major distinguishing difference between the two separate forms of radiation.
Ionized matter (positive charge) has an electron population below ambient (neutral), and appears as a sink for ambient E field radiation. Since a point sink or a point source exhibit flows that may converge from , or diverge to the isotropic ambient Pe plenum, it is seen that an unbalanced E flow exists for either case, which is necessary to manifest both attracting and repelling force fields. It is also of note that, since a positive charge is a sink in the Pe spectrum, it must also be an above ambient point source in other prime force sub spectra.
This suggests that the total prime radiation flow between negative and positive
charge is a closed cycle, and is analogous to the solenoidal B spectral flow between magnetic poles.
The measurable E force
radiation diverging from the negative charge provides the necessary convergent E
flow for the positive charge. In return, the unrecognized divergent Prime spectra
,Pf, of the positive charge (ion) provides the necessary
excess convergent flow for the negative charge. The source / sink / source cycle for each type of
charge is satisfied when they join together and become a neutral particle.
This image of Electrostatic E field Lines provides a demonstration of this source-sink-source cycle. When joining (de-ionization) occurs the E fields convergent (+) and divergent (-) radiation flows decay to nothing, in the space exterior to the particle or conductor.
The above free electron system is seen to be very similar to the sink source system proposed for radium. Each of the following are examples of the sink source cycle.
In a closed semi-conductor circuit with a DC voltage source, let Maxwell's demon operate a switch that will let one electron through at a time. With no conduction we have a negative charge (E source) on one side of the switch,... and a positive charge ( E sink ) on the other. When our demon at the switch allows one electron through,... it immediately joins with a positive ion (hole) and neutralizes it. This extinguishes one source and one sink of E force radiation. Since we only have one free electron in this all semi-conductor circuit, the battery EMF must ionize successive atoms to propagate the electron around the circuit and back to the switch. This will result in a hole (sink) reappearing in the positive side of the switch. If the E field flow emanating from the free electron were visible, it could be seen that the E light was flickering on and off as the electron jumped from one atom to the next positive ion. The discreet event characteristic of conduction is also evident in the process of electrolysis. The ionization steps within a conductor may not be as energetic as the ionization of electrolysis or photo emission but the discreet E force field change is necessary for each type.
The degree of mechanical accuracy in this DC conduction scenario is not the issue. The point to be highlighted,.. is that conduction, when viewed as discrete events of ionization and neutralization, will produce an intermittent E field, which is necessary to produce E field curl, which is the steady state magnetic line, B. The current remains directly proportional to the magnetic flux. This periodic step concept of conduction suggests that the DC electron flow, in a high vacuum tube (no ions) and with no external magnetic field,... may not exhibit a magnetic field or inductive reaction or may only exhibit reduced versions of these phenomena. The suggested reduced magnetic field effect may also occur for the conduction with the process of electrolysis.
If the free electrons of the conventional continuous conduction energy band model bypass all neutral conductor atoms on their way to the battery, there would be a constant acceleration of the electron and it would arrive back at the open switch and expend its eV energy only at that point. This would be analogous to the electron ballistic conduction and plate heating in a vacuum diode or particle accelerator. This linear type of conduction would also fail to exhibit resistance and energy loss along the conductor, e.g.: Superconduction??. The conventional conduction model does not consider that ionization takes place within a conductor. This radiation model does not view the electron as a particle that can pass from one atom to the next without any disturbance in the Prime radiation or the local E field.
This discontinuous ionization concept of conduction suggests that the surrounding steady B field is due to the periodic existence of the E force fields, resulting from the emergence and annihilation of free charges. The light emitted from an LED is another indicator of the ionization / de-ionization events. It is also recognized that the acceleration of electrons, as in a magnetron and / or ionization, also provide analog E field disturbances that cause dynamic B fields. The fluorescent lamp provides a good example of the AC disturbances of the E field created by the ionization and neutralization process. In EMI interference tests the fluorescent lamp is used as a source of broad band EM interference radiation. Some interesting insights may also be found by comparing ionization with fission and de-ionization with fusion. ***
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When electrons move within a normal direct current conductor in relation to neutral charges; point sinks (pos. charge), and sources (neg. charge) of E fields are continuously being created and destroyed. This occurs during the transit time when an electron accelerates from one atom and moves to the next positively charged atom (ion). During this transit time the electron (or neg. ion) becomes a distinct E source. The emergence and decay, of these point E sources and sinks, provides the changing spatial non-uniformity in the ambient E force field. This resulting non-uniformity (curl) of the E force field is the steady B field. For constant direct current conduction, steady state curl E maintains the surrounding steady magnetic B force vector field. With changing or alternating current conduction EM radiation propagates as a disturbance (reversing and changing curl) in the ambient Pe background spectrum. The curl of the propagating disturbance of the E field, is the B force vector.
The fact that the vector operation of curl produces a math vector in the same direction as the magnetic force vector is just a coincidence. There is no physical logic in a "non hydrodynamic" radiation flow model that predicts that the magnetic force should be at right angles to the non-uniform E force vector field. The converging E flow is transformed to other diverging spectra through mixing, in a similar manner to that modeled for common nucleon matter. This mixing and interference phenomenon may provide the physical model for the perpendicular characteristic of the B force phenomena.
The B force vector (E curl) only arises from the non-uniformity in the spatial intensity of the E field as a result of the creation and annihilation of E sinks and sources. There are no differential velocity streamlines in a radiation flow field to form a fluid type vortex [curl]. Fluid has a continuous existence, the E force spectral flow and the free charges do not have continuity of existence, even though the average current is continuous. The process of mixing provides sinks and sources for the divergence of radiation flow. In a vector math statement;... the divergence of the displacement vector D is proportional to the charge density (rho), and the charge density varies due to ionization and produces a derivative;... d divD/dt . The steady state magnetic force vector B is caused by and is directly proportional to this time rate of change of charge, (derivative), d rho/dt .
When one models the magnetic solenoidal force field B, as unstable matter, the magnetic line can then be seen as a linearized simplex basic particle. It of course has the form of a string, instead of the point form of a normal particle. In the prior section, Matter as Radiation, all other forms of matter particles are modeled as a three dimensional confluence of radiant flows. Particles exist within their certain converging harmonic spectra. This same converging concept applies to the magnetic line, it differs only in the lack of a three dimensional form and a lack of stability. When atomic matter decays it exhibits energy;... when a magnetic line decays it exhibits energy.
With this material string model of the magnetic line, the E spectrum is the predominant detectable spectrum in the confluence of prime radiation which is converging and mixing to form the line. Spectra resulting from the mixing of the converging frequencies form the unbalanced flow of the B vector force.
Facing the north pole, the line is modeled as having a clockwise rotation into the magnet. The opposite end of this same solenoidal line would then have a counter clockwise rotation when entering the south pole of the magnet. In this manner the solenoidal line always retains the same complimentary direction of spin, within the magnetic material and in space. The spin vector is of course parallel to the axis of the line. This results in like poles on two facing magnets having opposing rotation for their magnetic lines. This opposing rotation is modeled as the system providing repulsion for like poles. All forms of matter are known to exhibit spin and repulsion in performing their occupation of space.
Since the magnetic line is always solenoidal this indicates that the B force field vector does not exist nor terminate in an isotropic scalar B field. This magnetic line exists as a sink and eddy in the isotropic Pe spectra !... A parent isotropic B scalar potential spectrum does not exist. The term radiation suggests that a flow is leaving a point source and propagating away in a straight radial line. The solenoidal form of the magnetic line (string loop) is a local disturbance in the prime radiation and matches the characteristic of matter and does not match the linear characteristics of radiation. There is nothing in this model that restricts the spatial form and size of all matter to the form or shape of a point particle. This matter model also removes the possibility for the existence of a monopole. The geometry of a solenoidal form does not include end points or point sources.
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The orbital action of charged particles, protons and electrons, in a magnetic field support this matter model of the magnetic line. The electron orbits the magnetic line (matter). An analog of this orbital force balance system is that of satellites orbiting in the gravitational field around planets. The magnetic line must be providing an E vector force field sink toward the center of the line, in order for electrical charges to establish stable orbits. When the magnetic line is viewed as an E field sink, with the electron being an E field source, there should exist an attraction. This converging E force field vector is perpendicular to and in phase with the normal B force vector of the magnetic line and the axial B vector force does not contribute to the orbital action of the charges.
It is logical that a converging E field of this nature would also cause the counter orbital rotation of positive charges through a repulsion force. This may prove harder to visualize than the rotation of the electron under the attractive force, and of course requires more than one magnetic line in the field. Isotropic repulsion of a positive charge moving perpendicular to and within a neighborhood of lines will result in an orbital path.
Experiment shows that the dynamic and static E and B force fields are mutually perpendicular. Vector math curl gives a rational explanation for the orbital action of electrons in the magnetic field, but this model and vector math do not provide a clear physical explanation for the cause of this 90 degree orientation of the E force and B force vectors.
In the phenomenon of electromagnetic radiation the disturbance of the E field creates a B force field line. Therefore, from only an ambient isotropic scalar Pe spectrum in space,... the E and B force vectors are manifested. There is no requirement for the existence of a separate isotropic background "Pb" scalar field to provide a dual Prime carrier medium for EM radiation.
This model of the magnetic line existing as a sink of E spectra is supported by the following two known phenomena. Solenoidal magnetic lines form around a conductor which is carrying constant current ,... and free electrons orbit around magnetic lines.
It is important to note there is nothing in this model which prevents the magnetic force field from becoming large enough to encompass a solar system or galaxy as a feature of the isotropic ambient scalar Pe spectral intensity. With magnetism's two attributes of;... 1) unlimited size and,... 2) existing as a soft form of matter,... it has the ability to account for the gravitational phenomena attributed to the hidden or "dark matter". The magnetic eddies in EM radiation also exhibit their inertia when radiation causes deviation in the paths of ions and electrons.
The Britannica web site provides another view of this magnetic matter
"It is a significant fact that Maxwell's theory leads to a localization of energy, which in electromagnetic fields is propagated somewhat in the manner of a substance, with a density that, for the vacuum case, is
W = ( E^2 + H^2 ) / 8pi
There remains also the unsolved problem of clarifying the relation of gravitation to quantum theory, which is much aggravated by the fact that gravitational energy allows of no similar localization. (of energy)" Unquote.
In this above quote Britannica refers to " the fact that gravitational energy allows of no similar localization" (of energy). Using this radiation and shadowing model there is no need to view the gravitational field as localizing,... propagating,... or radiating energy. The unbalanced G spectral flow is available potential energy for objects which are free to fall with the unbalanced flow. For whichever point a moving object arrives at, the gravitational potential energy is already there, and does not need to be propagated.
If a solar cell type microchip is ever developed that is able to convert the unbalanced G spectral flow to electrical energy, it will then be proper to call the G spectral flow, "Radiant Energy". Until then it seems proper to call it "Gravitational Potential Energy". Although it should be recognized that Radium does directly convert some balanced spectra of Prime radiation, Pf, to usable heat energy and other forms of atomic energy.
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It is interesting to note that the electron shell particle concept is modeled spatially in a manner very similar to the above description of the magnetic toroid. The electron is modeled, not as an orbiting and spinning point particle, but as a standing interference wave encircling the nucleus as a helical solenoidal form and as a source of E force field radiation. In contrast, the magnetic line is a sink of the E force field. Since there is no point particle (Electron) orbiting the nucleus it is obvious why there is no EM radiation and energy loss due to orbital acceleration of electrons. The toroidal standing wave, which is the electron, exists surrounding the nucleus, but does not orbit it.
In this paper the electron and the magnetic line exist as forms of matter. Unlike the electron, the static magnetic fields are not stable and are not known to exists when divorced from matter and or from current flow in conducting matter. The exception to this may be the gigantic magnetic fields of the Solar system and the Earth. This underlined link, Magnetism, is a link to the earlier treatment of this Magnetic model.
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The force interaction that occurs when an unbalanced photon flow, such as gravity, interacts with a particle in free space,... is here modeled as the creation of momentum. The photons of prime radiation of the unbalanced gravitational flow are modeled as creating momentum in a falling object. Interference interaction is the process that allows mass-less photons to cause momentum in particles, without carrying the mass ( M ) required for the mechanical transfer of momentum ( M x V ) and kinetic energy, Ke = ( M x V^2 ) / 2. An Impulse of Force takes place, I = F x T, but it is not a momentum exchange process.
In this model photon interactions with particles are the originating cause of inertia,... therefore photons can not carry momentum nor have mass with inertia. The photon (wave packet) of proper wavelength presents a moment of unbalanced radiation flow to the particle. The standing wave radiation, which constitutes the particle, is entrained with the unbalanced flow and now interacts with a new set of rays at its new velocity. There is a resulting impulse action force and a change in movement from the interaction but the process should not be called transfer of momentum, nor should one expect to find a reaction force acting on the photon. In this model,... this is the creation of momentum from the potential energy of the unbalanced radiation ( force field ). Consequently, in this model, the photons of all force fields do not have momentum, nor transport momentum, nor transfer momentum during interaction. Again, the whirlpool that is swept down river does not exchange momentum with the river. The water whirlpool is a feature of the river and in the same manner the electron and nucleon,... exist as a vortex feature of the prime radiant river. A second analog exists in the interruption of a light beam with a toothed wheel. The blanked sections (shadows) travel with the light beam but they do not require energy or momentum from the light beam, the shadow sections are a feature of the light beam.
Some readers have suggested that the pressure, as in Radiation Pressure, cannot exist unless particles with the kinetic energy concept of heat and pressure, provide the force from their momentum. It should be noted that the dimensional units of pressure are force per unit area. It does not restrict the force to momentum transfer.
If one argues that prime non-EM photons have momentum, what is the originating causal system of the momentum? ...Where does the "indestructible" momentum go in the area of dark interference fringes?... What horsepower is required to accelerate the "mass" of the photon from rest to speed in zero time. What occurs when the inertial retarding reaction force of a falling object re-acts upon the "mass" of the causal gravitational photon?...How would a model of radiation "with momentum" be any better or differ from the vibrating material ether of the 1700's?
The Compton Effect impulse force that is a so called "momentum transfer" between EM radiation (photons) and electrons (matter) is not momentum transfer in this model. The impulse force arises from the local interference interactions between the traveling wave structure of the photon and the standing wave interference structure, which is the electron.
A reader may wish to view the photon action force as a transfer of energy from prime radiation to the particle, but it must be recognized that the resulting kinetic energy, which is apparently residing in the particle, is actually a mutual feature of the particle and the prime background radiation. The unbalanced flow of radiation with its resultant force has caused the manifestation of energy in the particle as momentum without the impinging radiation itself containing momentum or mass. If there were mass in the prime radiation or light, there could not be free opposing flows and the phenomenon of inertia would exist without having a system of origination (cause).
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In the reverse analog of the process, when a directional antenna is launching EM radiation there is a reaction force on the antenna and the radiation is a form of energy but the radiation does not receive mass or momentum. In a bookkeeping sense, some scholars may keep track of the forces and the energy balances by saying that photons of radiation have mass and momentum during movement and a "magic zero rest mass" when at rest, but it leads to absurdities from a dynamic systems viewpoint with this model. If photons have mass during flight and the spooky Zero Rest Mass when at rest, by what arbitrary relative reference frame do we determine the relative attributes of rest and motion? In summary, with this model the radiation interaction is the originating cause of inertia, and the photons of EM and Prime radiation cannot have mass, inertia or momentum.
The mutual shadowing interaction causes the phenomena of inertial and gravitational "mass". These phenomena do not reside in the matter independently of the prime background radiation. The static and/or dynamic inertial reaction force is a mutual phenomenon between the static stable radiation disturbance, which is the particle, and the prime background radiation.
During acceleration the action force is causing and is opposing the inertial re-action force. The inertial reaction force which exists during acceleration does not completely disappear when the outside action force ceases. The inertial forces just return to their static isotropic balanced opposing condition. If this radiation of balanced inertia photons carried mass or momentum to a static particle continuously, where would the energy reside..?
Additional examples of forces that are not a result of momentum exchange follow:
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In particle dynamics there exists the concept of two types of rotational momentum. These are commonly called orbital and intrinsic momentum. The most obvious is the orbital type, which arises from the orbital motion of particles when a multi particle nucleus spins on a certain axis. All particles not on the axis would exhibit rotational momentum. The existence of orbital momentum is valid for this form of an object and this type of movement in this model.
In this paper the single nucleon particle is described as a confluence of radiation converging in a vortex to form the particle. Therefore the apparent intrinsic spin of a single particle would not manifest momentum. As described above, radiation and standing waves can apply force but do not exhibit momentum. When a particle orbits a magnetic line it would exhibit orbital momentum. When a particle is accelerated in translation, it would exhibit momentum. But no momentum or energy would be related to the intrinsic spin of the single nucleon particle about the axis of its vortex form.
In this model the electron is not a point particle following an orbit about a nucleus, but is a standing interference wave surrounding the atoms nucleus. Therefore, there would be no momentum or kinetic energy associated with the electrons intrinsic rotation as a torus form,... nor would there be any orbital momentum or energy.
When this electron is removed from the atom it is still classed as a particle and continues as a stable torus form. It still sinks and sources radiation flow. As a free electron it would exhibit translational momentum as manifested by all matter. With this model of the electron there is no longer a question of why the electron does not lose energy and fall into the nucleus, it is not a point particle with orbital momentum. The phenomenon we have been calling orbital motion is really intrinsic spin of the electron on its own axis, which is common with the axis of the nucleus. ***
Revised excerpts from the Inertia section of the paper "Radiant Pressure Model of Remote Forces" are provided below. Rev. May, 2001.
Inertia is the most prominent force interaction of matter with the prime radiation of space. An atom is continuously interacting with its own characteristic existence spectrum in a balance of forces,.. even when we view the atom as being at rest. With present technology we have no means to unbalance this natural balance of force; other than by causing acceleration through mechanical means or force fields.
As in the quantum theory, interaction of prime radiation with matter takes place in discreet quanta or photons, with an all or none characteristic.
A single photon consists of a limited number of waves (coherence length). The frequency of the beginning portion of the interacting photon wave train is determined by the characteristic existence "absorption" spectrum of the particle. Since the photon is a series of waves, a given time interval is required for the complete interaction. As an atom is accelerated within the balanced background radiation, the Doppler effect will cause a relative frequency and flow increase during the photon interaction time interval. This results in a radiation flow increase in the forward direction. A proportionate decrease will occur in the trailing direction. Thus, an unbalanced radiant flow would result in a retarding force proportional to acceleration, F = M*A.
After the interaction with one prime photon (wave packet) is terminated, the particle reverts to its original characteristic "absorption" frequency for interaction with the initial section of the next photon. This continuous saw tooth relative frequency variation and resultant radiant flow unbalance causes the force of inertia during acceleration. It can be seen that a Doppler shift does not occur for constant velocity during absorption (interaction) time,...but only for acceleration.
It should be noted that the intermittent radiant flow, inherent in a photon system of radiation, is an absolute necessity for the operation of this Doppler model of inertial force. The ending of one prime photon allows the particle to switch to a photon train of a different wavelength as required by the different speed and yet retain its original characteristic "absorption" frequency.
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A particle in free space is a three dimensional disturbance in its particular prime isotropic subspectra of existence. It is obvious from the term, isotropic, that the particle does not have acceleration in any particular direction relative to its current interactive subspectra. Now when a change in velocity occurs, the trailing and approaching radiation vectors must change to a different wave train in order for the particle to maintain interaction with its characteristic spectra. The interacting radiation transverse to the direction of acceleration will not require any change. Once the change of velocity is complete, the particle will again be residing in an isotropic flow of its characteristic prime frequency spectra.
It can be seen that the new approaching radiation is of a "lower" frequency in relation to the prior frequency from the same direction. Yet, in relation to the moving particle, the new wave train is at the same frequency and wavelength as the original and transverse wave trains. This of course is the familiar Doppler shift due to the relative change of velocity. The original approaching radiation has experienced a "Blue Shift", and the original trailing radiation has experienced a "Red Shift". These color terms are used to indicate the direction of shift during acceleration, understanding that the frequency of the subject prime radiation is well above that of the visual color spectrum and the complete EM spectrum.
This above description of the inertial interaction suggests that changes in linear momentum for nuclear particles may only occur in discreet quanta in the same manner that particle spin (angular momentum) is thought to occur in integral steps (quanta). If the unbalanced force spectra involved in inertial interactions does exist as a harmonic spectra, this would essentially insure that the changes in linear momentum for particles would occur in steps (quanta).
Thus, inertial force is seen to be a mutual interaction between the particle and the prime radiation of the space surrounding the particle. The total reaction force will only depend on the number of nucleon particles (n) in the object and the degree of shielding (S) for those particular element atoms.
The notation for the popular equation,
F = M*A, becomes, F = (S*n)A.
For single nucleon atoms [hydrogen] there would be no shielding and the equation would be F = (1)*n*A , where S would be equal to one. For all multi-nucleon particles S will have a value of less then one. It would appear that this form of the equation would be used in particle physics and the familiar F = M*A form would still be used for larger objects. It is not expected that it will be practical to find the number of nucleons (n) in a large object in order establish its quantity of matter. ***
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With this model's system of inertia, it becomes apparent that the kinetic energy of motion also resides as a mutual property between the radiation surrounding the object, and the object. Momentum and inertia do not reside just in the object; therefore, the kinetic energy also resides in the mutual interaction with the surrounding radiation. When a particle is falling in a gravitational potential field, energy from the interaction with the unbalanced flow is causing the acceleration, and the Doppler interaction changes are establishing the relative energy of relative motion. It is seen that the sea of prime background radiation is the ultimate infinite source for potential kinetic energy,... and the residence for the kinetic energy of relative motion. Consequently, the phenomenon that we call kinetic energy never leaves the prime background plenum,... it just changes form.
A clear analog of this mutual system is the well accepted phenomena of electrical inductive energy. When a DC current is interrupted,... the energy of the resulting spark is known to be caused by the magnetic energy existing in the space around the wire. This electrical energy is not just in the electrons. The manifested energy is also a mutual property between the magnetic field and the electron.
Therefore kinetic energy, inertia and momentum are not aspects of an object alone, derived from its mass and velocity, but are the results of the mutual constructive and destructive interference between the radiation patterns of the matter and the prime background radiation of space. All force "fields" and lines of force in space with heretofore unknown causes, are manifestations of, and are caused by matterís interference interactions (shadowing), mixing, sinking and sourcing, with specific sub-spectra of the prime radiation. ***
When two rays of different frequencies meet and interfere in space, it would be expected that the sum, difference and two original frequencies would exit the junction point. In this manner, the junction (simplex particle) would appear as a sink for the original wavelengths and a source of new wavelengths which provide the mechanism for repulsion forces required for the occupation of space.
When Pierre Curie and Laborde first measured the fountain of heat energy from
radium with an ice calorimeter, they proposed that the manifested energy was from an "exterior" unknown source.
In their view, radium appeared
as a sink for the infinite source of the prime radiation spectrum,... and as a source
for radioactivity's EM heat spectrum.
The simplest example of down-converting this prime radiant potential energy to usable heat energy is this radioactive decay of radium. This process is parallel to the photoelectric process of converting electromagnetic radiation to electrical energy. This is also quite similar to the thermodynamic systems where you must have a heat sink as well as a heat source. Regardless of the amount of high frequency heat potential energy available, without the low frequency heat sink, the heat engines will not operate and kinetic energy does not appear.
In the case of radium, the prime radiant potential energy provides the energy source and the radium provides the isotropic sink. So the energy frequency is just transformed from the prime radiation (Pf) to heat energy (EM) through radium, which is the catalyst for mixing.
It is interesting to compare this compact radioactive system of energy production to that which occurs in a gravitational system. In the gravitational system two objects are required to produce detectable energy;
There is no doubt that an unbalanced radiant flow is involved in each case. However, the radium has very efficiently provided itís own isotropic unbalance (sink) in the prime radiation and transformed this inflow frequency to produce (source) the frequencies of heat, which is a resonant disturbance in the Pe sub spectrum of the prime. Since the radiumís temperature is above ambient, the unbalance of temperature allows the heat energy to radiantly flow to the ambient sink. Does this suggest that if the ambient is above a temperature that the radium is able to produce, that there would be no production of heat? An analogy of this condition occurs in a closed electrical circuit when an added opposing voltage (E field), stops the flow of current.
It appears that the symmetrical unbalanced flow surrounding a radium atom allows the radium atom to remain at rest. If the absorption or emission interaction were unbalanced, acceleration of the atom would be expected, comparable to the action seen for nuclear fission.
Radiumís radioactive decay (transformational frequency mixing) with the resulting heat and radioactive release may provide a model for the development of an artificial process to interact with the prime radiation and obtain useful energy without the help of radioactive substances. ***
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The phenomenon of electromagnetic radiant energy is very different from the phenomenon of Prime radiation. EM radiation gives the appearance of transporting energy through empty space to remote points. Prime radiation is the existence of infinite potential force and potential energy at every point in space. EM radiation exists as a resonance in the prime E spectra, Pe, and just utilizes the potential energy continuously existing at every point of space and thereby gives the appearance that energy has been transported from a remote local. This process answers the paradox of,... how is it possible for transverse E and B waves to transport energy in a longitudinal direction. With this concept of light and EM energy manifestation,... Nature is not required to transport coal to Newcastle. Occam's Razor predicts that Nature is the ultimate conservator and does not do any acts in vain.
A free electron in free space would have an electrostatic force field diverging from it, and these force field frequencies, Pe, would have an intensity above that of the Prime isotropic sub spectra, Pe. The velocity of the propagation of this force field radiation E is not known, but it is expected that it is the same as that of gravity and well above the propagation velocity, c, of any local EM radiation.
The motion and acceleration, or the lack of same, for the "free electron" particle would cause no electromagnetic force or EM energy. Only when an electron has motion in relation to its conductor ( positive charges) or external gradient E or B fields, are force and energy manifested. If this free electron could be accelerated with gravity, there would be no magnetic field or EM radiation associated with this acceleration, just the normal inertia. This experiment is similar to rotating a negatively charged glass plate. If this could be done in the absence of;... external EM fields, electrostatic force and the Earth's magnetic field;... no magnetic field or radiation should result from this mechanical orbital acceleration of the charge.
When an electron is moving or is accelerated in a conductor due to a voltage potential, it is creating and annihilating individual sinks and sources of E force radiation (ionization and neutralization). This process creates a chain of non-uniformity (curl E) in the potential E force fields. This non-uniformity (curl) in the local E field is the B field. Thus the E field has created a B field, and the B field line is matter and an energy (E sink). With AC current the next oscillating, reversing change in the E field allows the energy of the B field line to decay, and become a source, producing and propagating the radiating E field disturbance. In this manner the propagation of a ray of light (EM energy) is comparable to a string of stationary particles (nodes). The particles are the magnetic fields (E field sinks) which are being created and decay in place, for each half cycle of the frequency. Therefore the propagation of light is not transporting matter (photons) or energy;...it is creating a resonance that allows the potential E force field and its potential medium Pe, which is always at the remote location, to manifest as the detectable phenomena of light, heat and force. With this system, light is creating local momentum and energy without transporting matter (magnetic fields) or energy. The pulsating stationary magnetic lines are matter (hidden ?) going into and out of existence every one half period at the receiving location, thus giving the appearance of moving particulate matter (photons). As the B vortex is forming it is a sink of Pe and thus appears the same as a positive charge. As the B vortex is decaying it is an E source and appears the same as a negative charge. This is why Maxwell's ephemeral displacement charge D accounts for the E Sink/Source function of the energetic B field.
This is somewhat comparable to waves providing force and momentum to the shore, but it is obvious that the particle of water did not travel from a distant storm to give up its momentum. This system also resolves the question of how radiant energy can arrive (manifest) at a target without the existence of longitudinal waves occurring in the E and B force fields.
With this model of EM radiation,... the electron emission due to the photo electric phenomenon is only triggered by the photon. The photon (wave group) is not required to have continuity of existence and motion nor transport energy or momentum,... and the electron is not required to furnish the energy. The energy found in the emitted electron is provided by the ever-present Prime radiation, Pf, and the threshold trigger for the emission event is provided by the local E field resonance caused by the arriving EM resonant frequency of the proper wavelength. When this resonance system for light (EM) transmission is viewed in correspondence with this model, it is recognized that normal gravity and the "unlimited gravity of black holes" have no interaction with the transmission of light. Therefore this model predicts that, due to an upper limit of gravity, gravitational black holes can not exist,... and if anomalies are expected at the center of galaxies,... they would not be black in the visible spectrum, nor the EM spectrum, because light and EM radiation do not have temporal or spatial continuity of mass and are not affected by gravity. ***
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In the gravitational system, infinite space is the source of the isotropic gravitational sub spectrum radiation. There are no known individual sources within the gravitational sub spectrum. The only source is the entire isotropic radiation field of space. The planets and bodies function as sinks and shields, thus providing the areas of unbalanced in-flow (shadowing) around the bodies. The diverging flow of re-radiated secondary energy (sourcing) in the gravitational system must occur at up-shifted frequencies and non-coherent frequencies that are not all detectable. Of course if all of these exit frequencies were visible, each planet would appear as a source of light similar to a Sun.
It is recognized that Olbers' paradox is applicable to the shadowing process in the same manner that it applies to the radiation process of star light. The shadowing effect decreases only by following the inverse square law with distance, in comparison the number of celestial objects increases more rapidly by the cube of the distance. Therefore the paradox is that the infinite number of celestial objects do not totally block all prime gravitational radiation from every direction. Of course if this occurred, gravity and matter could not exist in a radiation and shadowing model. The same frequency mixing and up-shifting process as discussed above is returning the local secondary re-radiated energy (heat, Sun light, and EM radiation) back to the original prime frequencies. Thus, this local regeneration and dispersion of the prime radiation answers Olbers' paradox in relation to the gravitational shadowing process.
In order for an object to obtain the kinetic energy of falling, from the potential energy of the converging unbalanced prime radiation, a second body or planet must be present to provide the remote sink and shadow for creating an unbalanced flow. It is seen that an objectís falling movement within an unbalanced radiant flow must occur for the manifestation of kinetic energy from the gravitational potential energy of the unbalanced prime radiation field. Only then is the definition of energy as force times relative distance satisfied.
In a similar manner, there must be an unbalance in the electrostatic potential (Pe) spectral flow (voltage) in a circuit for current to flow and allow the transformational production of energy (electron volts) to occur.
It is again important to note the difference between the energy obtained from EM radiation; and the kinetic energy obtained from the unbalanced gravitational radiation. The gravitational spectrum does not transport energy from one object to another object or from point to point as EM radiation appears to do.
EM radiation is a continuous process that appears to transport energy. As a result we are easily able to measure and recognize the EM background radiation. The only method we have of detecting the gravitational background radiation is the measurement of its force (weight) or its acceleration of objects toward the Earth. ***
Space, for this model, consists of conventional three-dimensional unwarpable infinite space that is not to be confused with the mathematical terms such as space time, cylindrical space, bounded space, spherical space, parameter space or state space control systems. The mathematicians use of the word space, to describe their various abstract multi-dimensional graphing constructs,... has caused unending confusion within fields of physical science. Empty physical space for this model is best mapped and visualized as a mathematical Cartesian coordinate system, and there the comparison with mathematical "space" should end. The mathematicians should coin their own phrases such as "system" or "state environment", or "state expanse" to describe their multidimensional graphs and geometries instead of borrowing the word "space", which has a very specific basic physical meaning that should not be modified for the reason of expediency.
Communicating ideas by language is enhanced by eliminating ambiguous terms and reducing the theme to the prime elements of the concept. The very essence of mathematical power and communication involves reducing all symbols, figures and statements to their single simplest unambiguous form and the lowest common denominator. A dual meaning for a symbol or term renders mathematical expressions unusable. Communication by mechanical drawings is also enhanced by eliminating unnecessary lines, figures and dimensions. One dimension is necessary to represent distance. Two dimensions are necessary to represent area. Only three dimensions are required to represent the volume of space. Volume and free space may also be represented by additional dimensions or other coordinate systems , but these multidimensional models are not necessary to understand the concept of volume. It is like adding unnecessary lines to a drawing, it can only hinder the communication of the elemental concepts. Occam's razor remains a sharp, valuable and underused tool.
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In this model all of space and matter is permeated with prime radiation. Yet, if radiation could be excluded from a volume of space, space would still exist in that volume. Radiation flowing through space might erroneously be "called" the fabric of space; and radiation is known to be subject to diversion or warping. However, if one tries to warp conventional space or space-time, obvious problems occur. If one endeavors to propose and show the shrinking, expansion, curvature or movement of space, what do you use for a reference? Space has no boundaries, no poles, no shape, no center and no reference point, origin, nor directional coordinates. Therefore an object cannot have the attributes of position, velocity, rotation, momentum or energy in reference to empty space. All of these attributes only exist in relation to other objects or radiation. In this hypothetical "empty" free space, without background radiation,... physics would not have translational or rotational inertia. When one wishes to add the feature of inertia to material in empty space, there has to be a medium added which can interact with matter and provide a reference frame. In this radiation and shadowing model,... that medium is prime radiation, Pf.
When other models propose warping or expanding a portion of space to a new location,... what is left behind in the original location,... empty what? When the section of space is moved to the new location, what happens to the space that was in the new location? When arriving at the new location, how do you know it is the new location, there is no reference point. If spacetime is a feature of physical reality, just which units of the dimensional analysis system of Mass, Length and Time do we use to measure and describe it? By what mechanism does matter warp spacetime,... and by what mechanism does spacetime interact and cause gravitational force on physical matter?
Obviously, the mathematicians working with warped or curved space are not referring to the conventional straight-line space of the one instantaneous linear time Universe. Space is void and cannot consist of a material or radiant fabric. The phrase "fabric of space" is an oxymoron. Any system consisting of a fabric,... is not space. When other authors speak of the fabric of space, they surely are not speaking of the normal concept of space, as used throughout antiquity. Space does not consist of a fabric, a cosmological constant or an implicate order. The infinite void of space contains the fabric of other systems, such as radiation's potential force and energy, but space itself cannot consist of a fabric. The prime background radiation of this model may be called a fabric, space-time or an implicate order and be subject to warping, focusing and shadowing, but the Cartesian coordinates of free space remain straight line, un-warped and do not consist of a fabric or other geometry. Consequently, in this model, the existence of a planet shadows (warps) the background fabric of radiation and thereby causes gravity as due to the unbalanced flow. Inertia remains an independent phenomenon, and is not required to be a factor in the cause of gravity. When light is modified by a magnetic field it is not viewed as being due to warped space. If light is really modified by a gravitational force field,... is it reasonable to attribute the modification to curved or "warped space"? Isn't it more reasonable to attribute the diversion of starlight to the unbalanced flow fields of the magnetic or gravitational sub spectra? The concept "fabric of space" belongs in the group of concepts that include; negative energy, flavored vacuum, remote force as an inherent property of matter, material ether, bundles of attractive force, and curvature of space. ***
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It is now apparent that radiation's creation of momentum;...and radiation as the cause of inertia are major issues in understanding this radiation and shadowing model. In this model all inertia is caused by the primary radiant flow system described above, therefore the radiant flow itself cannot have inertia. With this system, prime radiation remains the one and only given,... mass, inertia, momentum and EM radiation are not required as initial conditions.
Ether System A main fault with the old material Aether (Ether) Model of the 1700's and 1800's is,... it assumes the material ether itself has inertia and therefore causes inertia in material objects. It does this without modeling an original cause for the inertia of the ether material. Therefore an ad hoc second Aether or medium must be proposed to model inertia and the remaining remote forces.
Quantum ElectroDynamics / Virtual Photons / Zero Point Energy
A similar fault exists with the Quantum ElectroDynamics / Virtual Photons / Zero
Point Energy theories. These three theories propose photon (electromagnetic
EM) exchange as the medium for force propagation between particles.
However,... you cannot model the electrostatic potential force, E force field, via the existence and shadowing of electromagnetic EM photon radiation. Dynamic ElectroMagnetic radiation first needs the static electrostatic potential force field E to exist. In a system of cause and effect, the effect cannot be its own parent cause nor can it be the cause of one of it's separate parent causal phenomena. Time only flows in one direction. If the three above theories model the EM spectrum (Virtual Photons) as the only causal radiation for remote forces,... then a second separate causal system must be modeled to account for the complex electrostatic potential remote forces of attraction and repulsion.
Circa 1940 Richard P. Feynman developed a system for calculating force interactions between particles. His system demonstrated that the interactions between particles could be viewed as being due to the exchange of "virtual photons".
Quote from Britannica: In 1926 the British physicist P.A.M. Dirac laid the foundations for QED with his discovery of an equation describing the motion and spin of electrons that incorporated both the quantum theory and the theory of,... "Special Relativity". The QED theory was refined and fully developed in the late 1940s by Richard P. Feynman , Julian S. Schwinger , and Tomonaga Shin'ichiro , independently of one another. QED rests on the idea that charged particles (e.g., electrons and positrons) interact by emitting and absorbing photons , the particles of light that transmit electromagnetic forces. These photons are virtual; that is, they cannot be seen or detected in any way because their existence violates the conservation of energy and momentum. The particle exchange is merely the ďforceĒ of the interaction, because the interacting particles change their speed and direction of travel as they release or absorb the energy of a photon. ...................>
Finally, the picture of electromagnetic interactions as the exchange of virtual particles has been carried over to the theories of the strong, weak, and gravitational forces. Unquote.
The bold underlining and quotation marks in the above quote have been added
by this author to emphasize the virtual photon issue under discussion.
The complete Britannica article may still be available at the following
If the three models QED , VP, and ZPE recognize the existence of NON-EM Prime radiation,... their virtual photons become real photons of NON-EM wave packets of prime radiant frequencies. With that single change the three theories merge with the concept of radiation and shadowing of prime radiation as the mediator of force. Occam's razor is a wonderful tool,... this one change also eliminates the need for the two ephemeral concepts of virtual photons and vacuum energy existing as undetectable EM radiation.
Mach's Principle Machís
Principle proposed that inertia exists due to the gravity of the stars acting on an
object's internal mass. Mass and the object's gravity were modeled as an
inherent property of matter. The remote forces of gravity and inertia were
presumed to act through empty space with no intervening medium or cause.
In this radiation and shadowing model, inertia exists as a local Doppler interaction between matter and the prime local radiation. With inertia, the action force and the resulting accelerating motion is the cause of inertia's Doppler unbalanced flow reaction. The interference action between inertia's Doppler unbalanced flow and the matter vortex gives rise to the retarding reaction force.
In standard popular models this retarding reaction force is normally assumed to be due to an internal inertial "mass". In this model, the weight force and the inertial force are mutual interactions between the surrounding radiation and matters ability to screen the radiation. Weight force and inertial force do not just reside in matter. If a window screen were held in a flowing river, the resulting viscous force would not be considered just a feature of the screen alone.
For the models that embrace, 1) Mach's Principal and 2) Gravity as a causeless inherent property of matter and empty space;... Olbers' Paradox immediately arises in relation to the gravitational force. Olbers' Paradox for starlight as quoted above shows that an individual star's light intensity only decreases in proportion to the inverse square of distance, yet the average starlight field should increase in proportion to the cube of distance. This follows from the fact that the star count increase is directly proportional to the volume of the solid angle. This same logic of Olbers' predicts that the isotropic gravitational force from the accumulated matter of the universe would approach infinity if the above concepts 1) and 2) were true. The cohesive strong force of nuclei would be rendered null under such an unlimited infinite isotropic gravitational force toward outer space.
This paper's model of gravity and inertia via radiation and shadowing with it's natural black shadow limit (total blocking of gravitational radiation),... eliminates any concern for Olbers' Paradox as applied to gravitational and inertial forces.
If one attributes the retardation of accelerative motion (inertia) to Mach's principle (Star field gravity), why would it not also retard:
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Equivalence The question of "equivalence" between gravitational and inertial force is also clarified in this model. In each case, the force is due to an unbalanced flow, but the cause and type of unbalance is different. Each is a distinct and independent phenomenon and feature of this radiation and shadowing model.
For gravitational force without relative motion, as on the surface of a planet, the unbalanced flow is a steady state interaction with constant wavelength photons. For gravity with acceleration, the interaction system is similar to the opposing inertial reaction system, as required due to the changing velocity.
For inertia the unbalance is only during the intermittent saw tooth Doppler interaction with changing wavelength photons. It should be noted that the inherent degree of internal shielding from interaction, natural for multi nucleon objects, would give equivalent effects for each phenomenon. Therefore, this model predicts that gravitational and inertial "masses" interaction effects are equal, yet the functions have distinctly separate causes. Gravity does not require inertia as a cause and inertia does not require gravity as a cause.
This radiation and shadowing model excludes the two circular concepts of:
The Big Bang Paradox
When one reviews the Big Bang theory of creation and it's expanding Universe
as "proven" by the red shift, a paradox immediately arises related to
the first cause of inertia. In order for the originating matter, which was
expelled from the Big Bang, to have less than infinite velocity,... inertia had
to pre-exist in empty space. If inertia did not pre-exist the expelled material
would obtain infinite velocity and all matter would be off to infinity,...
instantly. Newton's law of Action and Reaction, as occurs with action force and
the reaction of momentum,... would be violated without the prime medium
providing inertia and momentum.
The same difficulty negates the concept of a bounded, expanding finite Universe. Inertia must again exist beyond the bounds, or else the expanding Universe would instantly expand to infinity.
The argument that inertia existed before the Big Bang,... requires a pre-existing prime medium that causes the property of inertial force in the infinite free space.
A similar dilemma arises for the propagation of EM radiation such as light, heat, radio, and Microwave Background Radiation (Black body radiation). Each one of these require the prior existence of the E field medium for propagation.
This path of logic suggests that:
The Universe is not bounded and therefore is not expanding,...therefore:
Some other physical process must be considered as the cause of the measured red shift (loss of wave compression) of star light, such as:
Circa 1620, Johannes Kepler noted that the surface of a sphere, inclosing a light source, increases as the square of the radius. Therefore the intensity of starlight and gravity must decrease following the inverse distance squared law of shadowing. Combining Kepler's inverse squared feature of radiation intensity with Planks relation of radiant energy to frequency, E = h x f , it is obvious that light frequency must red shift with distance in each ray path.
Starlight's energy loss may also occur via production of harmonic frequencies through mixing with the background radiation and opposing starlight.
The mixing process produces effects on the group and phase waves of the original radiation.
Olbers' paradox revealing the previously unexplained loss of star light energy also appears to be directly related to the above listed possible causes of the red shift.
Island "universes" expanding and contracting within the one Universe may cause redshift. ***
The following are examples of force alterations, by Nature and Man, through changes in shadowing or changes in radiation flow for the following force spectra:
Magnetic B field spectra:
Electrostatic field spectra: Pe
EM Radiant energy spectra:
Gravitational G field and Inertial spectra:
With this system's model the particle of matter, as a vortex, is a feature of the radiant flows. Thus, the falling of a particle in an unbalanced flow does not require momentum from the flow. Relative momentum is caused by the unbalanced flow's interaction with matter, but momentum does not exist in the prime radiation flow. The one and only primary necessity for this model of reality is the existence of the one and only "given":...non-particulate prime radiation. The model has removed the necessity to have:
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