Gravity Concepts, Sec. 50, Rev. May, 2003
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The source or cause of the prime radiation is not considered in this model. In characterizing the features of the prime radiation, it is important to note that it cannot be referred to as ElectroMagnetic radiant energy, even though it may be viewed as "potential",.... potential-energy. In a free space area of isotropic flow the Prime radiation is only radiation. In a shadowed space with unbalanced flow the Prime radiation becomes potential energy, as used in the terms gravitational potential or voltage potential. When the unbalanced flow is applied as a force in falling and combating the retarding inertial force during acceleration, it manifests as kinetic energy of the object. The unbalanced flow can only occur for the gravitational force system when an object (planet) is in the vicinity to sink or shadow the flow from the planet's direction. This passive system of unbalancing is the only method presently known by our science. When an object such as a boulder is raised to a height, it is said that the energy expended to raise the boulder is stored as potential energy of position within the boulder. In this model of radiation and shadowing the energy and force arises from the unbalanced flow of radiation through the boulder. The force and energy expenditure by the radiant flow is essentially the same whether the boulder is falling or not. Thus this model predicts that an infinite source of energy is available from Prime radiation at an essentially infinite rate.
In the Standard Model of Physics EM radiation is caused by the acceleration of electrons. In this model the electron exists as a deformation in the prime spectra and in turn shadows the prime sub spectra . Thus, the accelerating electron and its shadowing modulate a portion of the prime spectrum. This modulation of the prime radiation is what we know as magnetism and ElectroMagnetic radiation. From the work of Fourier, any modulation is shown to be due to harmonics of the original frequencies. Thus, EM radiation can be seen as a feature of the prime radiation, yet, the prime radiation can not be called ElectroMagnetic radiation. Since EM radiation is at the speed of light, the prime radiation must also travel at least at the speed of light.
Disturbances in the prime radiant flow such as fission, fusion and the electric arc, cause frequency conversions that result in energy emissions in the EM spectrum. Most of these emissions we equate to energy. Yet, there may be an equal amount of additional emission, such as ultra gamma, that we cannot detect or measure, and therefore are not considered energy because they do not exist in our spectrum of interests. It is expected that these undetected emissions are of a much shorter wave length than the known limits, and are not necessarily only electromagnetic radiation.
As previously noted in this paper the prime radiation and shadowing interactions are viewed as the essence of matter and the mechanism causing all forces that appear to act through a distance. While remote forces are the main theme of this paper, it should also be noted that this same radiation system is also transmitting the non remote forces such as compression, friction, pressure and impact, that are associated with matter's occupation of space.
The prime spectrum of our existence is known to contain the following force subspectra:
It should be noted, the spectra and sub spectra listed above, exist within the prime radiation spectrum, and are well above the known EM spectrum in frequency. Thus the sub spectra group listed as ELECTROMAGNETIC, is not EM radiation, but exists as the flux for the E and B force fields of the familiar EM radiation.
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The minimum necessary characteristics of this prime radiation are:
- Universally isotropic to all points
- Remains isotropic with velocity.
- Radiates omni-directionally through all points in total space and matter.
- Has an infinite frequency spectrum.
- Radiates as photons, i.e.: modulated wave groups.
- Is not electromagnetic.
- Does not have mass or inertia.
- Exhibits self interference and may exhibit polarization.
- Forms stable and unstable interference patterns.
- Propagates at least at the speed of light.
- Does not originate from matter.
- Leaves no empty space.
With this prime radiation model the radiation may be thought of as unbalanced or refracted near large bodies, as indicated by the solar occultation experiments, but space remains un-warped and retains its straight line three dimensional quality without regard to time, frequency or radiant flow.
Images of the Prime radiation flow are presented at the web page,
Images of Radiation.
With many individual spectrums available in an infinite frequency system, there may coexist many other parallel universes and creations of matter with vortices formed in other spectral flows that have no common interactions with our relative time domain, matter or frequency and energy spectrums.
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In this Wave model of Matter, all nuclear
and sub-nuclear particles and electrons consist of
deformations and resonant interference patterns such as
vortices in the isotropic radiant flows of space. There is
no mechanism to change radiant energy to matter or store
radiant energy as matter. Solid particles as spinning
bundles of EM and atomic energy stored in nuclei,
independently existing in empty space, do not exist. Radiant
energy is not absorbed or stored, only interference patterns
change. All incident radiation must exit in some spectrum,
instantaneously. The vortex has features similar to a prism,
the emitted spectrum may be significantly different than the
incident spectrum. The emitted spectrum is the mechanism
that accounts for the forces of repulsion in this model.
Due to dynamic mixing of frequencies in the vortex, a particle may shadow and sink one spectrum and be a source in another particular spectrum. An example of the sink and source mixing function is the following image of the Crab nebula. There is an apparent sinking of energy in the orbital elliptic plane and jets of energy are exiting the opposing poles. The SOHO images of our Sun also provide views of energy flow exiting the Sun's poles.
A multitude of complex forms are possible for the stable and unstable deformations, interference patterns and vortices of radiant space. From experimental papers it appears that the outer shells of the neutrons and protons exist as layered concentric vortices, Ref. 1 Each concentric shell of the nucleon is considered a stable circular standing wave or a three dimensional whirlpool in its particular frequency of the spectral flow. Inner shells exist in high frequency radiation and outer shells in low frequency radiation, and the dimensions of the shells are proportional to multiples of 1/4 sections of the interacting wave length. The literature indicates that complex substructures exist within the nucleus, such as quarks, but each substructure is viewed as a vortex in the prime radiation.
In the classical models of matter there is no mechanism to account for the spin of all atoms and particles. With this radiant flow model the spin is a natural, necessary and obvious result of the particle's existence. If there is no spin, there is no particle.
This model opposes the view that particulate matter is the basic building block. All attributes of matter, mass, inertia and occupation of space, are orchestrated by radiation and interference. Matter is a mirage and radiation is the foundation.
The photon is regarded as a linear disturbance in the
prime radiation. It can be described as an amplitude
modulated wave packet with the amplitude varying from zero
to maximum to zero. It obtains its amplitude variations from
harmonious interference and modulation with its fellow and
opposing and transverse photon travelers in the infinite
frequency spectra of radiant space. Thus the photon is seen
as a group wave and the prime spectra and subspectra
are the phase waves. The use of word photon normally refers to wave groups of
the visual spectrum. It is borrowed here for describing wave groups in the prime
(1) Ref: The multi-ply spinning proton. SCI News, Vol.110, pg.58.
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Solid particles are a concept of our macroscopic apparent reality that cannot be applied to the nuclear and sub nuclear matter of this universal radiant pressure model. The phenomena of inertia, gravity, mass and occupation of space are not incomprehensible inherent characteristics of solid particulate matter, but are the interference interactions between adjacent flow disturbances which make up matter in the isotropic linear flows of radiant space. Gravitational acceleration results when the whirlpool is swept along in an unbalanced radiation flow in much the same manner as a whirlpool disturbance flows with a river.
The simplistic macroscopic view of this radiation model is that it consists of isotropic radiation, interference, and matter manifested as interference whirlpools. In reality there are multiple possibilities for complexity in the system. The system has multiple modes of freedom with the following parameters;
There may be many stable standing wave disturbance
patterns and forms in the opposing flows that make up matter
such as torus rings, flat spiral arm galaxies, strings, and
concentric rings and spheres formed in a manner similar to
our known optical interference systems such as
holograms. The interference forms created by nature
are not necessarily subject to the restraints and
assumptions of our mathematical models.
The particular mathematical concept of zero divergence, forcing all interference forms to be solenoidal, is not considered valid for this radiation/shadowing model. Prior particulate models by others have considered the creation of particulate forms to be subject to the divergence/solenoidal requirement. The phenomenon of two frequencies mixing at an interference point and producing the sum, difference and the two originals removes the requirement of a solenoidal torus form. The mixing produces point sinks and sources in various subspectra.
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The following atomic structural images provide insight into the threshold between prime radiant flow and the interference structures called matter.
In the right foci of the ellipse a real cobalt atom has
been inserted. In the left foci of the ellipse a phantom of
the real atom has appeared. The appearance of the
phantom atom was not expected. Ref. Science News
The ellipsoid coral was constructed by placing 36 cobalt atom on a copper surface. This image is provided here to provide a visual demonstration of the attributes of material matter arising from the harmonious interference of prime background radiation, (non-electromagnet). The fact that the phantom appears at the foci of the ellipse indicates that the radiation is emitted or reflected from the atoms of the ellipse. The phantom atom exists as a confluence of radiation. If this were EM radiation, increasing temperature would cascade the matter to the plasma state.
Visual holograms exist in the EM spectrum. In this model matter can be viewed as a hologram in the prime radiation spectrums.
Is this our first view of de Broglie's matter waves, Schroedinger's waves and Faraday's vibrating lines of force? Additional interesting SCM images with technical descriptions concerning different fields of study are available at the IBM web site. The original of the above image may still be available at URL http://www.almaden.ibm.com/almaden/media/mirage2.jpg IBM Corp. has no connection to the theory and works presented on this Gravity, Inertia and Radiation web site.
The disappearance of a particle such as an electron in one location and its appearance instantaneously at a remote location does not require speeds exceeding the speed of light when the particles are whirlpool disturbances in the sea of radiant flow. In liquid systems a new bubble may form in one location as an old bubble is absorbed at another location, yet the bubble did not move and the liquid system is still in equilibrium.
This system also solves the mystery of one polarized neutron passing through another in the atom smashing experiments. They are only two whirlpools temporarily dancing as one.
The classical wave theory of matter is not totally different than this cosmic radiant whirlpool model. In the classical wave theory, all elementary nuclear particles consist of circular or spherical EM energy waves independently stored and existing in empty space. In this model the spherical radiation waves that we call a particle are a whirlpool interference feature existing in the linear isotropic radiant flows of space.
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The electron is not viewed as a particle or material point that orbits the nucleus. It again is a vortex shell of standing wave interference patterns produced by interference between opposing flows in frequencies of the electrons particular existence spectrum. The facts that electrons do not spiral into the nucleus, and some atoms share valence electrons, supports the shell model.
The mass spectrograph shows the electron has inertial mass, so it must exist in the prime radiation spectrum, and it also interacts with the E vector spectrum and the EM spectrum. The shadowing around the nucleus sinks the E field and attracts electron radiant shell structures per the 1/R squared system for shadowing and flow unbalance. Therefore, the classical equation for force between charges, F = (KQQ)/RXR, remains unchanged in this radiant pressure model for electrostatic forces. The dielectric shielding that can occur between charges may show similarities to the gravitational shielding.
There is some evidence in the literature that electrons decay to radiant energy. With the proper manipulation of shielding and focusing it may be possible to create electrons in and from the prime radiant flow since particles are no more than stable disturbances. This may result in a source for electrons.
With this model of electrons there is no positive charge other than the absence of electrons. This suggests that an ambient level of electrons exists in matter in much the same manner as the ambient level of heat. This would predict an absolute zero for electrons, comparable to an absolute zero temperature for heat. This absolute zero for electrons would be the limited largest possible positive voltage obtainable. A zero voltage between objects only means they are both at the ambient level of charge or there is no differential charge.
In a resistor, the electron which exists in the prime spectrum is accelerating and decelerating, (ionizing and de-ionizing) resulting in disturbances of the prime spectrum which are heat and light in the EM spectrum. Maxwell's equations and the Poynting vector ( S = EXH ) clearly indicate that the energy manifested in the resistor is flowing from the EM space around the resistor into the resistor. This demonstrates that a sink and source system must also exist for the flow of energy. Without the divergence of the Poynting vector there is no EM energy flow into the resistor. In a similar manner there is no gravitational force and/or energy without a planet acting as a sink ( shadowing ) for the prime radiant flow. Without divergence of the radiant flows (unbalanced flow), no remote force will be evident. Regardless of the intensity of the source field (prime radiation), force and/or energy will not be manifested without a sink for the relevant sub spectrum.
Heat is also modeled as interference patterns (standing waves) in the form of concentric vortex shells in linear radiant flow . The major point of difference in relation to Electron shells, is that the thermal shells do not have rest mass and exist only in the radiant flows of the Electromagnetic spectrum. The minimum shell is large enough to encompass a complete molecule. The phenomenon of molar heat capacity directly indicates this form of model. The old Brownian theory of heat, with heat existing as energy stored in the kinetic energy of vibrating molecular motion, dictates that all specific heats should be proportional to mass. This heat shell theory predicts that the heat capacity should be directly proportional to the number of molecules. The Dulong and Petit law of 1819 shows the heat capacity of some metals to be directly proportional to the number of molecules and not the mass or number nucleons within the molecules . This could not occur if the Brownian kinetic theory of heat were valid.
When a given quantity of ice is melted in a calorimeter the temperature
remains at 32 deg. F until all of the ice is melted. The quantity of heat
required to cause this phase change is called the latent heat of transformation.
A paradox occurs when one try's to model the latent quantity of heat as kinetic
motion (Brownian) of atoms and molecules when the temperature remains the same for
the mixture during the phase change??
With this models concept of heat as shells of standing waves there is no question of hidden kinetic energy and motion during the phase change.
Another serious paradox within the Brownian Theory of Heat is the question of
heat radiating from a hot object. If the heat energy within the object is stored
as inertial energy of motion,...how can inertial energy be transformed into
radiant heat at the surface, and yet have the internal energy exist only as
However;... within the heat shell concept the internal and radiated energy exist as EM radiation and no surface transformation is required.
Avogadro's hypothesis of 1811 revealed that under the same conditions of pressure and temperature, equal volumes of "all gases" contain the same number of molecules. This model's view that the size of the molecule is determined by the number of heat shells is consistent with his hypothesis. This information along with the Dulong and Petit Law and the latent heat paradox, form a strong case for abandonment of the Brownian kinetic theory of heat.
Heat shells must surround the total molecule, as seen from the molar heat capacity. Super conduction takes place when a minimum of heat shells exist to interfere with the electron shells. Ferromagnetism only takes place when a minimum of heat shells exist (below the Curie temp.) to interfere with the E and B force spectra; the constituents of magnetism. Since heat is not molecular motion, it may have an upper temperature limit determined by the number of heat shells a substance may retain in relation to the wave lengths available in the heat spectrum ( sub of EM spectrum ). This would be somewhat similar to the mass limit in the nucleus. There are only a given number of nucleons that a nucleus may retain and remain naturally stable.
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The following is a list comparing the features of the
Electron shells and the Heat shells for this model.
Stable particles (points) emit, reflect and transmit radiation in a symmetrical fashion and have no unbalanced force from the radiant flows. Disturbance points (particles) with nonsymmetrical shadowing would accelerate through space with the flows. Radioactive emission results when vortices (nuclear particles) have relative movement within the nucleus and the shadowing changes to more stable patterns. Unbalanced disturbances or ripples are given off that flow with the ever present isotropic radiant flow. The immediate motion of the particles with the isotropic flows gives rise to the apparent energy release and energy frequency transformations. The particles with no rest mass are only ripples. The multitude of sub nuclear particles derived from atom smashing are no doubt similar to the many eddies, ripples and waves one would obtain by destroying a water whirlpool with a bullet.
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